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Dancing, Drinking, and Eating Pie: Pinkster Festivals in Seventeenth Century New York City

Apple pie, recipe below 
Yesterday I started talking about the Pinkster festival first celebrated in metropolitan Dutch New York and New Jersey in the early 1600s. As enslaved Africans moved to the center of the Pinkster festival, they Africanized it electing a Pinkster King and also staged it in urban forums such as New York City food markets. Large numbers of enslaved Africans gathered with the permission of their masters to attend church services and baptisms away from home for several days. These events also included Dutch and Native Americans spectators enjoying blacks playing fiddles, banjos, conga drums, and dancing jigs, breakdowns, double shuffles, and as well as “Guinea dances which some scholars theorize were precursors to contemporary hip hop dance moves. Africans also sold food to raise travel cost—foraged foods like berries, herbs, vegetables, beers, fish, oysters, hogs—and they sold food at the event—ginger bread, beer and pies. Here is a delicious apple pie recipe that you can make with alone or with children from the Culinary Institute of America located in the Hudson Valley.

Crawfish étouffée: a luscious tomato based sauce with history